Gastroenterology
Pseudohematochezia – cefdenir, rifampin, phenytoin, cherry syrup, beet, strawberry, red
gelatin

Pseudomalena – bismuth, charcoal, Iron, chocolate, blueberry , spinach

False positive FOB - Rare red meat, turnips, horseradish, broccoli, cauliflower
Functional constipation and episodic cough are the most common cause of rectal prolapse in
otherwise healthy children. Cystic Fibrosis in 11% of children with prolapse.

Application of gentle, persistent pressure with lubricated gloves is the most common method
of reduction.

Sugar can also be applied to the prolapsed mucosa as a desiccant; it reduces excess edema
that may be associated with prolonged cases of prolapse.
Altered Stool Color
Rectal Prolapse
Vomiting may or may not be bilious in cases of malrotation with acute midgut volvulus.

The presentation of malrotation and volvulus in older children and adolescents may be more
subtle, with intermittent vomiting and abdominal pain.

An upper gastrointestinal series is the diagnostic study of choice, it shows whirlpool or
corkscrew appearance.
Malrotation
Magnetic Foreign Body
Indications for urgent intervention include signs of airway compromise, evidence of
esophageal obstruction, disc battery in the esophagus, sharp or long objects greater than 5
cm in the esophagus or stomach, high-powered magnets, signs and symptoms of GI
inflammation or obstructions, and evidence that the foreign body has been impacted in the
esophagus for more than 24 hours or an unknown period of time.

Ingestion of 2 or more magnets leads to attraction of the magnets across bowel walls. This
phenomenon can cause bowel obstruction.